Prevalence of anti-tissue Transglutaminase antibodies among patients with alopecia areata in Nassiriah city.
Keywords:alopecia areata (AA), autoantibody, celiac disease (CD), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody IgA (tTGA), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody IgG (tTGG)
Background: alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body, usually from the scalp due to the body's failure to recognize its own body cells and subsequent destruction of its own tissue as if it were an aggressor. The Anti- tissue transglutaminase antibodies, antibodies against the enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG), are found in the blood of some patients with alopecia areata. Serological blood tests such as anti- tissue transglutaminase antibodies are the first-line non-invasive investigation required to make a diagnosis of celiac disease.
Aims: the aim of the study is to establish the prevalence of Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in patients with alopecia areata.
Methods: we evaluated 96 serum samples. The samples were collected from two groups; group I of sixty five patients with alopecia areata and group II of thirty one control patients who were referred to dermatology department in al-hussaien teaching hospital for different dermatological diseases other than alopecia areata. All participants were evaluated for anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA and anti-tissue transglutaminase IgG antibodies.
Results: out of the 65 patients with alopecia areata included in the study, tTGA was positive in 13 patients (20%) and tTGG was positive in 8 patient (12.4%). The prevalence of positivity in patients with alopecia areata was higher compared to the control group in which tTGA was positive in 3 patients (9.7%) and the tTGG was positive in 2 patients (6%).
Conclusion: we conclude that patients with alopecia areata have higher prevalence of serum anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies compared with control which support the autoimmune basis for alopecia areata, however, we were unable to demonstrate an increased risk of celiac disease in those patients.